Football Outsiders Glossary | Football Outsiders

    click here for a glossary of general soccer terms.

    If there is a term used in soccer outsiders that you would like to see defined in this glossary, please email it to contact us.

    Reading: What does dvoa mean in fantasy football

    Terms used primarily in our college football analysis, rather than our NFL analysis, are colored purple.

    Adjusted Games Lost (agl): Measurement of the cost of injuries, both in terms of games lost and games in which players were unable to play to their full potential. estimates a number of games based on whether players are listed as likely, questionable, doubtful, or out. introduced in the 2008 pro soccer prospectus trial, “the effect of injury.”

    Adjusted Linear Yards (aly): A stat that tries, however small, to separate a running back’s ability from the offensive line’s ability. Adjusted rushing yards start as a measure of running backs’ average rushing yards per play only, adjusted as follows:

    • 0-4 yards: 100% strength
    • 5-10 yards: 50% strength
    • 11+ yards: not included
    • races for a stall: 120% strength

    Each play is also adjusted based on the game situation and the quality of the opponents you face. adjusted line yardage can be listed as totals or broken down by direction to attempt to isolate the ability of specific linemen. more here.

    Adjusted Sack Rate (ASR) / Sack Rate: Sack Rate represents sacks divided by passing plays, which includes passes, sacks, and aborted plays. is a better measure of pass blocking than total sacks because it takes into account how often an offense passes the ball. adjusted sack rate adds adjustments for opponent quality as well as down and distance (sacks are most common on third down, especially third and long). more here.

    aggressiveness index: jim armstrong created this metric that measures how often a team goes for a first down in various fourth down situations, compared to the league average in those situations . It was introduced in the 2006 Pro Football Prospectus. The NFL average is represented by 1.0. a trainer above 1.0 is more aggressive and a trainer below 1.0 is less aggressive.

    alex: ango less expected. Alex measures the average difference between how far a quarterback threw a pass (passing yards) and how many yards he needed for a first down. If a quarterback throws a pass 5 yards behind the line of scrimmage on third-and-15, that would be minus-20 alex. alex’s best application is to watch on third and fourth down when getting 100 percent of the yardage needed to extend the drive is really crucial. A tall alex would be indicative of a quarterback who aggressively attacks the sticks, while a short alex is indicative of a conservative quarterback more likely to control and/or rely on yac. yes, the name is inspired by alex smith, who frequently has one of the lowest alex averages in the league.

    fo angry troll mad lib: template created by reader zlionsfan to be used when fans unfamiliar with fo’s statistical methods want to complain about where their favorite team is in power from that week’s standings (based on dvoa). says the following:

    <team> is clearly classified as <too high/too low> because <non-dvoa related reason>. <subjective rating system> is much better than this. <supportive or disparaging comments not related to the team, preferably with poor spelling and/or acceptable spelling in chat>

    Backzone: In the football system that divides the field into five zones, this represents when the offense has the ball from their own 21-yard line to their own 39-yard line.

    sack rate – The percentage of passes intended for a specific receiver that are completed rather than incomplete or intercepted. occasionally referred to as “catch rate”, but we prefer “catch rate” because it is shorter. often abbreviated in statistics tables to c%.

    Catholic Party Girl: The girl featured in an ad that aired on fo during the 2006 season. Her blonde face, gazelle eyes, and intense gaze made some readers fall in love her and others ran in fear.

    colbert award: Weekly award given by our scramble for the ball column to the head coach who shows the biggest balls through aggressive plays or lineup decisions.

    Continuity Score – A measure of offensive line continuity introduced in the 2007 Pro Football Prospectus. Continuity Score starts with 48 (the perfect score) and is then subtracted:

    • the number of players over five who started at least one game on the offensive line;
    • the number of times the team started at least one different lineman compared to the previous game ; and
    • the difference between 16 and that team’s longest streak in which the same line started consecutive games.

    correlation coefficient: a number between -1 and 1 that measures how closely two variables are related. the closer to -1 or 1, the stronger the relationship. a negative correlation means that when one value increases, the other decreases (example: points allowed and wins). Values ​​close to zero suggest that there is no correlation between the two variables. (Note: While a strong correlation coefficient suggests that one variable affects another, correlation does not necessarily indicate causation.)

    curse of 370: The theory that a running back with 370 or more carries during the regular season will generally suffer a major injury or loss of effectiveness the following year, unless his name is eric dickerson . sometimes loss of efficacy or injury occurs two years later (see: ladainian tomlinson, 2004). 370 carries is not a hard and fast rule, but rather a helpful guideline for overusing running backs. Introduced in the 2004 Pro Football Prospectus, the 370-carry theory was expanded in the 2006 Pro Football Prospectus to include any season with 390 carries in the regular season and postseason combined. it only takes account, not receptions. read more here.

    dave – This rating is used at the beginning of the year, combining the early season dvoa ratings with the pre-season dvoa projection. (For the first three weeks, use unadjusted opponent voa ratings.) the goal is to get the best idea of ​​how good a team will be throughout the season without jumping to conclusions based on one or two good or bad early games. . The rating was created through a regression analysis of week-to-week DVOA ratings from 2010-2019. it’s called dave because of all the people who annoy us with complicated names for our stats; A typical response was “well, we can’t name the dave stat.” so this time, we did. means dvoa aadjusted for vearly eolatility.

    deep zone: In football’s outsiders system that divides the field into five zones, this represents when the offense has the ball from their own goal line to their own 20-yard line (in other words, the opposite of the red zone).

    Losses – The total number of plays by a defensive player that prevent the offense from gaining yards on first down on third or fourth down, stop the offense behind the line of scrimmage, or result in a turnover. “plays” refers to tackles, passes defensed, forced fumbles, or interceptions. see stops.

    the doug johnson effect: Beware of high expectations from a part-timer who performed very well last season in only one or two games. see: tim rattay, lee suggests.

    dpar: Adjusted points for defense over replacement. the method of measuring player performance used by soccer experts from 2003 to mid-2008, translating a player’s value into estimated total points rather than yards.

    dyar: Adjusted yards per defense over replacement. A football outsiders stat that compares each player’s performance, in terms of dvoa, to a replacement-level baseline rather than the league average for that position, then translates that total into yards. because dyar is a total stat, not a speed stat, it helps show the importance of running backs and receivers being workhorses who can draw attention away from other players’ defense. dyar replaced dpar as our method for measuring individual players with the release of the 2008 Pro Football Prospectus in July 2008. The replacement level method and calculation is discussed further here.

    dsr – Drive success rate, or the percentage of time a team will get a first down or a touchdown in a given set of four attempts. Introduced in the pro football prospect’s 2005 essay “Debunking the Driving Momentum Myth” by Tim Gerheim and Jim Armstrong.

    dvoa – The primary stat used in soccer outsiders, dvoa breaks down the entire season play-by-play, comparing success on each play to the league average based on a number of variables including down, distance, field location, current scoring gap, fourth, and opponent quality. while it can be used as a measure of total team performance, it differs from other power rankings found on the web in that it can be broken down to analyze team effectiveness in a number of ways: down, fourth, running vs. receiving, field placement, passes to backs vs. passes to receivers, and so on. read the article methods to madness for more information. dvoa stands for defensively adjusted value above average, although we use the same letters to refer to defensive ratings that are adjusted to account for the quality of offensive opponents. when it doesn’t adjust to the opponent, this stat is called voa.

    era dvoa – Short for 1985-2020, the seasons in which football outsiders have play-by-play breakdowns and can therefore produce dvoa and our other advanced stats. it’s not meant to be as nasty as it seems.

    Effective Yards (eyds) – This metric translates dvoa into a number of yards per attempt. this provides an easy comparison: in general, players with more effective yards than the standard yards played better than the standard statistics would indicate, while players with fewer effective yards than the standard yards played worse than the standard statistics would indicate . effective yardage is not the best way to measure total value because it is more usage dependent than dyar.

    Equivalent Points (eqpts): Method used by our college football analyst bill connelly, giving each yard line a point value based on the average number of points a team can expect score from that point. field. (This is similar to the method we use to measure NFL special teams.) from there, each win or loss is given a point value based on the change in teams.

    See also: Toronto Sports teams – list of all professional clubs

    Estimated Wins – The number of games that team should have won if faced with an average schedule of opponents and average luck, as determined by the Forest Index.

    Fantasy Points – Score for a fantasy football league. while each league has its own scoring system, non-soccer player articles that reference fantasy football will use this fairly standard scoring system, unless otherwise noted:

    • 1 point for every 10 rushing or receiving yards, or 20 passing yards
    • 4 points for a touchdown pass, 6 points for a touchdown run or receiving
    • – 2 points for a lost fumble or interception
    • 2 points for a two-point conversion
    • for kickers, 3 points for an 18-39 yard field goal, 4 points for a 40-49 yard field goal, 6 points for a 50+ yard field goal, 1 point for an extra point
    • for defenses, 6 points for a TD, 1 point for a sack, 2 points for a fumble recovery or interception, 4 points for a safety, 5 points for a shutout

    Field Position Index – Compares the number of plays one team made in the opposing field position to the number of plays the other team made in the opposing field position. these two numbers must add up to 100 percent.

    fo: Abbreviation for, this website.

    football outsiders almanac: since 2009, the annual book written by the football outsiders staff. Includes essays on each team, statistical tables, new Kubiak fantasy football research and projections, plus advanced FO stats and player reviews for “Skilled Players.” replaced the pro football prospect, who was current from 2005 to 2008.

    Forest Index: A response to the claim that the dvoa team’s total ratings “lost the forest for the trees”, the Forest Index (developed in late 2003) yields an estimate of the wins based on a formula that combines dvoa ratings on offense, defense, and special teams, as well as red zone defense, offense and defense in 2nd half of close games, 1st quarter offense, and variance (see variance).

    4qc: comeback in the last quarter. at the team level, this is any game in which a team wins after trailing in the fourth quarter (or modified overtime). At the quarterback/offense level, Scott Kacsmar introduced this stat to Pro-Football-Reference in 2009, correcting the myth that John Elway held the all-time record with 47 4QC. Elway actually had 34 4QC wins, the same number as Johnny Unitas, because Denver counted games in which Elway never lost in the fourth quarter. Dan Marino actually held the record with 36 4QC, which has since been surpassed by Peyton Manning. kacsmar credits a 4qc to a quarterback when he meets the following requirements:

    • the quarterback was on the field in the fourth quarter with possession of the ball and his team trailing by one score.
    • the quarterback led an offensive scoring drive to tie the game or take the lead.
    • the quarterback’s team ultimately won the game.

    For a game to count as a 4qc opportunity, the quarterback must have possession of the ball in the fourth quarter with a one touchdown deficit.

    fred edelstein lock of the week: the best college football game bet of the week as chosen by seventh day adventure podcast host russell levine and their weekly guests. Named for the former ESPN “inside” who is currently serving time for fraud.

    f-plus (f/+) official college football ratings from football outsiders, combining game-by-game and drive-based efficiency systems developed in independent by bill connelly and brian fremeau. f/+ scores represent the best measure of overall varsity performance that we have ever measured in terms of predictive quality and retrodictive analysis.

    fremeau efficiency index (fei) college football rating system created by brian fremeau based on measuring the success rate of a college football team in scoring and preventing the opponents score during non-trash possessions of a game. like dvoa, fei rewards playing well against good teams, win or lose, and punishes losing to poor teams more harshly than it rewards beating poor teams. unlike dvoa, it’s based on momentum, not play-by-play, and is designed specifically to measure college play.

    front zone: In the outsiders football system that divides the field into five zones, this represents when the offense has the ball from the defense’s 21-yard line to the defense’s 39-yard line.

    fo game charting project: a project started in 2005 in which fo readers charted every nfl game to produce statistics that are not publicly available, including receiving yards, the assigned defenders on passing plays, the offensive formation on each play, and many other facts.

    Guts: Any 1-8 point win over a team that will finish the season with a record over .500. This term comes from an article written for in 2005 and republished in Pro Football Prospectus 2006, which shows that big wins over bad teams are a better indicator of future success than close wins over good teams. the four terms introduced in this article:

    • guts: a 1-8 point win over a winning team
    • stomps: a 14+ point win over a losing team
    • skates: a win by 1-8 points over a losing team
    • dominations: a 14+ point win over a winning team

    idp – Refers to a fantasy football league that uses individual defensive players instead of team defenses.

    gwd: game winning impulse. Arguably the earliest known use of drive stats, the game-winning drive is the offensive scoring drive that puts the winning team ahead last in the fourth quarter or overtime. very similar to the comebacks in the last quarter (4qc); the main difference is that a gwd can occur in a game that is only tied. there doesn’t have to be a deficit like in a comeback. not all 4qcs are gwds, not all gwds are 4qcs, but they are definitely related stats standardized by scott kacsmar for pro-football-reference in 2009. a gwd opportunity is any game where the offense has possession of the ball in the fourth quarter or overtime with the score tied or losing by one score. a 1-play, 0-yard drive that is just a field goal attempt does not count as a gwd.

    keep chopping wood: weekly prize awarded by our scramble for the ball column to the player or coach who hurts his team the most by his bad game. Named for the Jacksonville Jaguars’ motivational catchphrase that caused gambler Chris Hanson to chop off his leg with an axe, leaving him for the year.

    kubiak projection system: a complicated system of statistical regressions used to project individual player statistics for fantasy football. not an acronym; He was named after Houston head coach Gary Kubiak because he was a longtime backup in the 1980s, as was Bill Pecota, who named the player projection system at Prospectus Baseball after him. >

    leverage rate – Percentage of a college football team’s plays that occur in no-pass passes, defined as all first downs, second downs with 1 to 7 yards to go , or third/fourth try. with 1-4 yards to go.

    lewin’s career forecast: introduced in the 2006 pro football prospectus by david lewin, and updated by aaron schatz here, the lcf was our system for projecting peak quarterback success college kids entering the nfl. it was superseded by qbase as of 2015.

    League of Losers – A fantasy football league originated by non-soccer players where we pick six players each week that we hope will play poorly, but meet the minimum requirements. the goal is to score the fewest points.

    loser points: Scoring method for the losers league, which is composed as follows:

    • 1 point for every 10 rushing or receiving yards, or 20 passing yards.
    • 4 points for a passing td, 6 points for a running or receiving td.
    • -2 points for a lost fumble or interception.
    • for kickers, 3 points for any distance field goal, 1 point for an extra point.
    • -2 points for a missed field goal and -5 points for a missed extra point.
    • also, the penalty: 15 positive points for a running back who does not carry the ball 8 times, a quarterback a fielder who doesn’t pass the ball 10 times, a wide receiver who doesn’t catch two passes, or a kicker who doesn’t play due to injury or general misconduct. a kicker who just doesn’t get a chance because his team is blocked doesn’t get the penalty.

    message board curse: term used to describe the tendency of nfl teams to lose games after their fans flood fo message boards with angry complaints about being out appearance in the dvoa ratings. Examples in 2005 include the Washington Redskins 3-0 losing to Denver in Week 5, the Broncos 5-1 losing to the New York Giants in Week 7, and, most famously, the Atlanta Falcons 6-2 losing to previous 1-7 green bay packers in week 10.

    Middle Zone: In the outdoor football system that divides the field into five zones, this represents when the offense has the ball from their own 40-yard line to the defense’s 40-yard line.

    Outfield Yards: Average yards per carry that go more than 10 yards beyond the line of scrimmage. represents long run yards not included in adjusted rushing yards.

    even: points above the replacement. dpar without opponent adjustments. dpar and par were replaced by dyar and yar in July 2008. See dyar.

    the penalty: In losers’ league discussions, it’s the 15 points scored by a running back who doesn’t carry the ball 10 times, a quarterback who doesn’t pass 10 times, a wide receiver who does not catch two passes, or a kicker who does not play due to injury or general misconduct. A kicker who just doesn’t get a chance because his team is blocked doesn’t get the penalty.

    Playmaker Score: Introduced in its entirety in Football Outsiders Almanac 2009 by Vince Verhei, then redesigned by Nathan Forster in 2014, Playmaker Score is a system for projecting peak success for college wide receivers entering the nfl In its current form, the system applies to all wide receiver prospects and is based on a weighted combination of five factors:

    • the prospect’s best season or “peak” season in receiving yards per team attempt
    • the prospect’s peak season in receiving touchdowns per team attempt
    • the difference between the prospect’s peak season for receiving touchdowns per team and the prospect’s most recent season for receiving touchdowns per team attempt (this factor is simply “0” for a player whose peak season was their most recent season)
    • the wide receiver vertical jumping out of pre-draft workouts
    • a binary variable that rewards players who enter the draft as freshmen and punishes those who exhaust their college eligibility
    • the wide receiver’s college career yards per receiving
    • the wide receiver’s rushing attempts per game during his high season for receiving yards per team attempt.

    See also: Three Observations from LSU Football’s 2021 Spring Game – Sports Illustrated LSU Tigers News, Analysis and More

    plus/minus (+/-): featured in football outsiders almanac 2010 by bill barnwell, a metric that compares a receiver’s actual number of catches to his “expected” number of catches after to adjust for uncatchable passes, the distance of the routes the receiver travels, the situations in which he has thrown the ball and the sack rates of his teammates. the resulting figure is the number of actual catches over or under the expected catches, which explains the name. The Saints’ Marques Colston led all receivers in 2011 with a team-adjusted plus-minus of 15.7 receptions above expectations, while the Broncos’ Eddie Royal had a league-worst -8.1 receptions per below expectations.

    power (running stat): Percentage of runs on third or fourth down, two yards or less to go, that lead to a first down or touchdown. also includes runs at first and goal or second and goal from the two-yard line or closer. not adjusted for the opponent. this is the only stat among football outsiders’ offensive and defensive line stats that includes both quarterbacks and running backs.

    point to recover: The theory that the referees will award a recovered fumble to the team that is signaling the hardest. honestly, when it all adds up, this is probably as accurate as any other method.

    ppp: eqpts per move. see teams.

    ppr: Points Per Reception, a fantasy football scoring system that awards an extra point per reception to increase the importance of possession receivers and versatile defenders.

    pro soccer prospect: from 2005 to 2008, original version of the annual book written by the soccer outsiders staff. It included essays on each team, statistical tables, new research, and Kubiak’s fantasy football projections, plus advanced FO stats and player reviews for “skillful players.” replaced in 2009 by the football outsiders almanac.

    program fei a multi-year rating for a college football program that incorporates five years of fremeau’s efficiency index to get a more accurate forecast for the upcoming season. see fei.

    pythagorean theorem: the principle, made famous by baseball analyst bill james, which states that a baseball team’s record can be approximated by taking the square of the team’s runs scored and dividing it by the square of team runs scored plus the square of team runs allowed. Later, statistician Daryl Morey extended this theorem to other sports, including professional football. teams that win a game or more over what the Pythagorean theorem would project tend to regress the following year; teams that lose a game or more as projected by the Pythagorean theorem tend to win more the following year, particularly if they went 8-8 or better despite poor performance.

    qbase – Fully introduced in 2015 by andrew healy, qbase is a system for projecting peak success for college quarterbacks entering the nfl. the system applies to all quarterbacks selected in the top 100 draft picks and is based on three factors:

    • College performance, adjusted for opposition and teammates (measured in completion percentage, adjusted yards per attempt, and team passing efficiency from football outsiders s&p ratings)
    • college experience, tuned for quality
    • projected draft slot

    robo-punter: A theoretical punt whose punts were high enough and far enough to be knocked down the yard line at a time. discussed ad absurdum in the discussion thread for this article. This nickname also appears to have been borrowed by Pittsburgh Steelers fans to refer to Daniel Sepulveda. we would like royalties. no no, we’re kidding.

    s&p: Combination of two measures, hit rate and ppp (eqpts per play). s&p combines efficiency measurement with hit rates and explosiveness with dpi, similar to the way baseball analysts use ops to combine on base percentage and slugging percentage.

    sackseer: Featured in Football Outsiders Almanac 2010 by Nathan Forster, and updated in Football Outsiders Almanac 2012, a system for projecting peak success for college running backs making it to the NFL. the original version projected first- and second-round picks based on a weighted combination of the player’s vertical jump, short shuttle runtime, college-adjusted sacks-per-game productivity (sram), and total game eligibility college missed for reasons other than first draft entry (maximum of 48). In its current form, Sackseer v2.0 expands the system to all select edge runners and includes college passes defended per game as an added factor.

    schedule: the average dvoa of the opponents.

    Fight for the Ball – A weekly column from soccer experts that serves as our premier forum for discussing fantasy soccer and weekly betting lines. one of two original columns from the football outsiders foundation in 2003 (the other is a weekly dvoa commentary). named for the game’s opening gambit in vince mcmahon’s short-lived xfl where, instead of flipping a coin to determine possession, two players ran from the sideline and the first to grab the ball in midfield won the initial possession for your team. written by al bogdan and ian demsbky (2003); al bogdan and vivek ramgopal (2004-2005); bill barnwell and ian dembsky (2006); bill barnwell solo (2007); ben riley and vince verhei (2008); mike kurtz and tom gower (2009 to present).

    Second Tier Yards: Average yards per carry that go 5-10 yards beyond the line of scrimmage. represents yards that only earn half a credit when calculating adjusted linear yards.

    Similarity Scores: A method of comparing the conventional stats of two different players, over a single season or over a two- or three-year career. described in full here.

    neutral situation pace: game clock seconds used per offensive play, with the following restrictions: drives are not included if they start in the fourth quarter or in the last five minutes of the first half, and units are only included when the score is within six points or less. a lower number indicates a faster pace. Pace stats are given in the Football Outsiders Almanac (and occasionally on our website) for both offense and defense, but defensive pace is a representation of how opponents approach a defense, not an indicator of the defense strategy itself.

    skates, stomps: see guts.

    Speed ​​Score: Featured in full in Bill Barnwell’s 2008 Pro Football Prospectus, a system for projecting the success of college running backs entering the NFL. combine a player’s weight with his nfl scouting mix 40 yard dash time which accounts for the fact that a bigger back is more likely to be a good nfl player than a small back with the same speed. speed scores generally range between 80 and 120, with 100 being the average. the formula is (weight*200) / (40 times^4).

    Stops – The total number of plays by a defensive player that prevent a successful play by the offense, defined as 45% of the yards needed on the first down, 60% of the yards needed on the second down, and 100% of the yardage needed on third or fourth down. generally “plays” refers to tackles, passes defensed, forced fumbles, or interceptions. the exception is when analyzing pass defense data from the fo game graphics project, in which case “plays” refers to all passes recorded with the given player as the indicated defender.

    stop rate: Percentage of a defender’s plays that are saves.

    padding (running stat) – Percentage of runners’ carries that stop at or before the line of scrimmage.

    hit points: value of a play determined by both total yards gained and yards gained as a percentage of the distance needed for a first down. hit points compared to the league average for that situation become voa. more here.

    hit rate: There are three statistics called hit rate.

    • Success Rate (Defense) – The percentage of plays directed at a defensive player in which the offense did not have a successful play. This means not only incomplete passes and interceptions, but also short completions that don’t meet the 45%/60%/100% benchmark for success detailed in the dvoa description. defensive player success rate plays a much bigger role in our book than on the website during the season, because it’s based on game chart data, which takes a couple of weeks to collect after games each week.
    • Hit Rate (Running Backs): A measure of running back consistency based on the percentage of carries where the player gains 40% of the yardage needed in the first down, 60% of the yards needed on the second down, or 100% of the yards needed on third or fourth down. small adjustment in the fourth quarter based on whether the team is more than a touchdown behind or running out of time. a runner above 50% is very consistent; below 40% is very inconsistent. more here.
    • Hit Rate (College Football): Our column of college numbers calculates the success rate of teams, not just running backs, using a set of baselines that differ slightly from our nfl success rates: 50% of the yards needed on the first down, 70% of the yards needed on the second down, or 100% of the yards needed on the third or fourth down.

    the tennessee run defense problem: the conundrum where yards/play and dvoa may not fully indicate the quality of a defense because this defensive unit scares other teams into do not run or pass. therefore, when teams actually rush or pass against the defense, the defense may be unprepared and perform at a level that appears average. Because of this, it’s hard to tell if the defensive unit is really as good as its reputation, or if the reputation scares other teams away from challenging an overrated defensive unit.

    variance: A measure of a team’s consistency from game to game as judged by the total dvoa rating for each game. a lower number represents more consistency (in 2011, atlanta and cleveland) and a higher number represents less consistency (in 2011, buffalo and baltimore).

    voa: value above the mean. this is dvoa, with three main differences: it’s not tuned for the opponent, it’s not tuned for all fumbles to be the same (lost or recovered), and special teams aren’t tuned for weather and altitude.

    weighted dvoa – A version of dvoa that gives more weight to recent games than games earlier in the season to try to get a sense of how teams have gotten better or worse over time. weather. discussed here.

    yar: yards above the replacement. this is dyar without opponent adjustments.

    Zone Blitz – For game graphics purposes, this is defined as any play in which the defense places at least one defensive lineman in coverage while pressuring at least one defensive back or linebacker.

    See also: U.S. Olympic 3×3 Team Golden

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